Free Stock Investing Education

Introduction Derivatives

Terminology

ADR

American Depository Receipts (ADR) are a contract over a "non US" company and are issued by banks which hold the foreign company's shares. Shares in ADRs are bought and sold through a stock broker.

Dividends

A cash payment made to investors who own the dividend paying stock. The dividend is the stock holder's share of the company's profit.

Shares

Shares are a part ownership of a company that is listed on a stock exchange.

American Depositary Receipts

Your gateway to global stocks

Introduction to Derivatives - American depository receipts; picture of a animated plastic model bank sitting in front of the world depicted by a large toy globe

American Depositary Receipts, usually referred to as ADRs, are essentially a contract that represents the shares of a non-U.S. company and are issued by U.S. depositary banks who own these shares. These foreign shares held by the U.S. bank are referred to as "American Depositary Shares".

ADRs serve two purposes. Firstly they allow a non-U.S. company to expand their stockholders' to include Americans which in turn provides these foreign companies with additional capital. Secondly ADRs allow stock investors to invest in these foreign companies by using their normal stock broking account.

ADRs trade on the U.S. stock markets and as such their stock prices are quoted in U.S. dollars. The stock price takes into account any currency fluctuations between the U.S. dollar and the foreign countries currency.

Stock investors can actually take on the physical holding of these shares by exercising the ADR contract. This means that the U.S. depositary bank will transfer stockholder ownership from the bank into the investor's name and therefore the investor will be on the foreign company's books as a stockholder rather than the banks name.

Long-term investors (especially buy and hold investors), may transfer the ownership of the foreign stock into their name to avoid paying the annual fee typically charged by the U.S. depositary bank. The disadvantage of exercising an ADR is that should the investor decide to sell their foreign stock, they will need to find a stock broker who deals with the foreign company's stock exchange. Also any dividends received now will be in the foreign currency which the investor will have to convert.

The investor should keep in mind that in buying an ADR, the investor is buying a contract and not the stock. Ownership of the stock is only achieved if the investor exercises the ADR which then transfers ownership from the bank to the investor.

When an investor buys an ADR - they are

buying a contract, not the stock

ADRs may represent one foreign share for one ADR share, but quite often they are represented by a ratio. This is done to allow the ADR to be priced at a level that is more common of the U.S. stock market prices. For example, one share of an ADR may represent three shares of the foreign stock.

A depositary bank may charge a fee, called a custody fee, for the services it performs such as registration, compliance, dividend distribution and record keeping services. It is common practice for the ADR depositary bank to deduct this custody fee from the dividend payments. However not all foreign companies pay a dividend and therefore the custody fee is collected from the investor via their stock broker with the fee showing up on the investor's brokerage account statement.

Investing in an ADR involves a foreign company whose business dealings are in the foreign country and is therefore subject to the economic environment of that country. Just because the U.S. economy may be performing strongly does not mean that the foreign country's economy is in good shape. Investors need to consider the current and expected future economic conditions of that foreign country as this may have an impact on the ADRs performance.

ADRs allow investors to invest in foreign companies using their home currency and they are easily bought and sold on a stock exchange and are held in the investors normal stock broking account.

The decision whether to invest in an ADR is dependant on whether the investor is seeking to invest in a foreign owned company, which is the purpose of the ADR.

A current list of foreign companies with ADRs trading on the NYSE or NASDAQ markets is shown below in Table 2. (Data: April 2017). The table also shows the ADRs one year and five annual gains where available.

ADR List

SymbolCompanyCountry IssuerAnnual Gain5-year Annual Gain
AAAPAdvanced Accelerator Applications S.A.France BNY14%--
ABBABB LimitedSwitzerland Citi18%5%
ABEVAmbev S.A.Brazil BNY8%-31%
ACHAluminum Corporation of China LimitedChina BNY51%1%
ADAPAdaptimmune Therapeutics plcUK Citi-44%--
AEGAegon N.V.Netherlands Citi-11%2%
AKTXAkari Therapeutics PlcUK DB-11%--
AMCNAirMedia Group Inc.China JPM-50%-2%
AMFWAMEC Foster Wheeler plcUK DB2%--
AMOVAmerica Movil S.A.B. de C.V.Mexico Citi-5%-10%
AMRNAmarin Corp. plcUK Citi65%-23%
AMXAmerica Movil S.A.B. de C.V.Mexico Citi-4%-10%
APOPCellect Biotechnology Ltd.Israel BNY----
APOPWCellect Biotechnology Ltd.Israel BNY----
ASMLASML Holdings N.V.Netherlands JPM40%21%
ASNDAscendis Pharma A/SDenmark BNY58%--
ASRGrupo Aeroportuario del Sureste, S.A. de C.V. (ASUR)Mexico BNY30%19%
ASXAdvanced Semiconductor Engineering, Inc. - (ASE Corp.)Taiwan Citi25%5%
ATAIATA Inc.China Citi-34%-10%
ATHMAutohomeChina DB17%--
ATVAcorn International, Inc.China Citi69%18%
AUAngloGold Ashanti LimitedS. Africa BNY-21%-20%
AUOAU Optronics Corp.Taiwan Citi40%-2%
AVALGrupo Aval Acciones y Valores S.A.Colombia JPM4%--
AVDLAvadel Pharmaceuticals PlcIreland BNY----
AVHAvianca Holdings S.A.Colombia BNY22%--
AZNAstraZeneca plcUK Citi2%7%
AZULAzul S.A.Brazil Citi----
BABAAlibaba Group Holding LimitedChina Citi47%--
BAKBraskem S.A.Brazil BNY54%7%
BBDBanco Bradesco S.A.Brazil BNY45%-5%
BBDOBanco Bradesco S.A.Brazil BNY28%-4%
BBLBHP Billiton plcUK Citi15%-13%
BBVABanco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria, S.A.Spain BNY15%4%
BCHBanco de ChileChile JPM17%-4%
BCSBarclays Bank plcUK JPM15%-4%
BFRBBVA Banco Frances S.A.Argentina BNY-14%31%
BGNEBeiGene, Ltd.China Citi35%--
BHPBHP Billiton LimitedAustralia Citi19%-13%
BIDUBaidu, IncChina BNY-1%7%
BITABitAuto Holdings CompanyChina Citi24%46%
BLRXBioLineRXIsrael BNY-11%-21%
BMABanco Macro S.A.Argentina BNY31%41%
BNTCBenitec Biopharma LimitedAustralia BNY62%--
BNTCWBenitec Biopharma LimitedAustralia BNY-66%--
BORNChina New BorunChina BNY-25%-18%
BPBP plcUK JPM9%-4%
BRFSBRF S.A.Brazil BNY-7%-8%
BSACBanco Santander ChileChile BNY26%-6%
BSBRBanco Santander Brasil SABrazil BNY75%0%
BSMXGrupo Financiero Santander Mexico, S.A.B. de C.V. (""Santander Mexico"")Mexico JPM5%--
BTBT Group plcUK JPM-36%3%
BUDAnheuser - Busch InBev SA/NVBelgium BNY-12%9%
BVNCompania de Minas Buenaventura S.A.Peru BNY40%-22%
BVXVBiondVax Pharmaceuticals LtdIsrael BNY63%--
BVXVWBiondVax Pharmaceuticals LtdIsrael BNY----
BZUNBaozun Inc.China JPM161%--
CAJCanon IncJapan JPM5%-7%
CBDCompanhia Brasileria de DistribuicaoBrazil JPM47%-15%
CCIHChinaCache International Holdings Ltd.China Citi-86%-27%
CCMConcord Medical Services Holdings LimitedChina JPM-7%3%
CCUCompania Cervecerias Unidas S.A. (Cia Cervecerias Unidas SA)Chile JPM15%-3%
CEAChina Eastern Airlines Corp., Ltd.China BNY-2%12%
CEOCNOOC LimitedChina JPM-9%-11%
CGGCGGFrance BNY-76%-62%
CHAChina Telecom Corporation LimitedChina BNY-1%-1%
CHLChina Mobile LimitedChina BNY-8%0%
CHTChunghwa Telecom Co., Ltd.Taiwan JPM0%2%
CHUChina Unicom (Hong Kong) LimitedChina BNY11%-5%
CIBBanColombia S.A.Colombia BNY5%-10%
CIGCEMIG - Companhia Energetica De Minas GeraisBrazil Citi48%-27%
CLLSCellectis S.A.France Citi-18%--
CMCMCheetah Mobile IncChina BNY-32%--
CNCOCencosudChile BNY6%-15%
CNTFChina Techfaith WirelessChina BNY-43%-20%
COEChina Online Education GroupChina DB----
CPACCementos Pacasmayo S.A.A (""Pacasmayo Cement"")Peru JPM34%-3%
CPLCPFL Energia S.A.Brazil Citi52%-10%
CRESYCresud S.A.C.I.F.Argentina BNY99%17%
CRHCRH plcIreland BNY26%13%
CRTOCriteoFrance BNY25%--
CSCredit Suisse GroupSwitzerland BNY1%-9%
CTRPCTrip.com International Ltd.China BNY7%36%
CUKCarnival plcUK JPM17%13%
CXCementos Mexicanos, S.A. de C.V. (CEMEX)Mexico Citi25%6%
CYADCelyad S.A.Belgium Citi-39%--
CYOUChangyou.comChina BNY59%5%
DBVTDBV Technologies S.A.France Citi-1%--
DCMNTT DOCOMO, Inc.Japan BNY-3%7%
DEODiageo plcUK Citi7%3%
DLChina Distance EducationChina DB-21%27%
DQDaqo New EnergyChina JPM-23%14%
DRDDRDGOLD LimitedS. Africa BNY-12%-10%
EEni S.p.A.Italy BNY0%-6%
ECEcopetrol S.AColombia JPM-1%-32%
EDAPEDAP Technomed S.A.France BNY-25%5%
EDNEmpresa Distribuidora y Comercializadora Norte S.A. - EdenorArgentina BNY134%74%
EDUNew Oriental Education & Technology Group, Inc.China DB67%21%
EHICeHi Car Services LtdChina JPM-4%--
ELPCompanhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL)Brazil BNY17%-18%
ENIAEnel Americas S.A.Chile Citi20%--
ENICEnel Chile S.A.Chile Citi-12%--
EOCAEndesa Americas S.A.Chile Citi----
EOCCENEL GENERACION CHILE S.A. (Endesa Chile)Chile Citi-14%--
ERICEricsson (Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson)Sweden DB-23%-8%
ERJEmbraer-Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A.Brazil JPM-19%-11%
FANHCNINSURE Inc.China JPM----
FBRFibria Celulose S.A.Brazil Citi0%3%
FENGPhoenix New Media LimitedChina JPM-15%-12%
FLYFly Leasing Ltd.Ireland DB9%1%
FMSFresenius Medical Care AGGermany BNY0%5%
FMXFomento Economico Mexicana S.A.B. de C.V.Mexico BNY-3%2%
FORTYFormula Systems (1985) Ltd.Israel BNY27%20%
FTEOFronteo Inc.Japan BNY----
FWPForward Pharma A/SDenmark BNY-12%--
GDSGDS Holdings Ltd.China JPM----
GENEGenetic Technologies LimitedAustralia BNY-53%-39%
GFAGafisa S.A.Brazil Citi-39%-26%
GFIGold Fields Ltd.S. Africa BNY-13%-23%
GGALGrupo Financiero Galicia S.A.Argentina BNY37%48%
GGBGerdau, S.A.Brazil JPM54%-20%
GLPGGalapagos NVBelgium Citi88%--
GOLGol Linhas Aereas Inteligentes S.A.Brazil BNY365%-10%
GOLDRandgold Resources Ltd.UK Citi-5%-1%
GRAMGrana y Montero S.A.A.Peru JPM-48%--
GRFSGrifols SASpain DB29%18%
GROAgria CorporationChina BNY----
GRVYGravity Co. Ltd.Korea BNY530%3%
GSHGuangshen Railway Company LimitedChina JPM30%9%
GSKGlaxoSmithKline plcUK BNY-4%-2%
GSUMGridsum Holding, Inc.China Citi----
GWPHGW Pharmaceuticals plcUK Citi39%--
HCMHutchison China MediTech LimitedHong Kong DB48%--
HDBHDFC Bank LimitedIndia JPM28%19%
HIMXHimax TechnologiesTaiwan BNY-30%29%
HLGHailiang Education Group Inc.China DB-5%--
HMCHonda Motor Co., LtdJapan JPM1%-4%
HMYHarmony Gold Mining Co. LtdS. Africa DB-31%-26%
HNPHuaneng Power International, Inc.China BNY-11%4%
HQCLHanwha Q CELLS Co., Ltd.China BNY-48%-10%
HSBCHSBC Holdings plcUK BNY24%-2%
HTHTChina Lodging Group Ltd.China Citi90%39%
IBAIndustrias Bachoco S.A.B. de C.V.Mexico BNY8%21%
IBNICICI Bank LimitedIndia DB12%6%
IHGIntercontinental Hotels Group plcUK JPM27%16%
IIJIInternet Initiative Japan Inc.Japan BNY-10%-1%
IMOSChipMOS TECHNOLOGIES INC.Taiwan Citi-2%5%
INFYInfosys Technologies Ltd.India DB-24%4%
INGING Groep N.V.Netherlands JPM30%18%
IRCPIrsa Propiedades Comerciales S.A.Argentina BNY22%30%
IRSIRSA, Inversiones y Representaciones S.A.Argentina BNY72%27%
ITCBItau CorpBancaChile DB10%--
ITUBItau Unibanco Holding S.ABrazil BNY39%-3%
IXORIX CorporationJapan Citi3%11%
JASOJA Solar Holdings Co., Ltd.China BNY-25%0%
JDJD.com, Inc.China DB28%--
JHXJames Hardie Industries plcAustralia DB16%17%
JKSJinkoSolar HoldingChina JPM-23%25%
JMEIJumei International Holding LimitedChina BNY-42%--
JMUJMU LimitedChina Citi----
JOBS51job, Inc.China JPM31%6%
JPJupai Holdings Ltd.China JPM-7%--
JRJCChina Finance Online Co. LimitedChina JPM-52%6%
KANGiKang Healthcare Group IncChina JPM-32%--
KBKB Financial Group IncKorea JPM46%5%
KEPKorea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO)Korea Citi-24%16%
KOFCoca-Cola FEMSA, S.A.B. de C.V.Mexico BNY-14%-7%
KONEKingtone Wirelessinfo Solultion Holding LtdChina BNY64%56%
KTKT CorporationKorea Citi21%5%
KTOVKitov Pharmaceuticals Holdings Ltd.Israel BNY-63%--
KTOVWKitov Pharmaceuticals Holdings Ltd.Israel BNY-69%--
KYOKyocera CorporationJapan Citi13%3%
LEJULeju Holdings LtdChina JPM-36%--
LFCChina Life Insurance Company LimitedChina DB26%2%
LFLLatam Airlines Group S.A.Chile JPM92%-14%
LITBLightInTheBoxChina BNY-8%--
LNLine CorporationJapan JPM----
LNDBrasilAgro Companhia Brasileira de Propriedades AgricolasBrazil BNY15%--
LPLLG Display Co., Ltd.Korea Citi25%4%
LUXLuxottica Group S.p.A.Italy DB9%11%
LXFRLuxfer Holdings PLCUK BNY-13%--
LYGLloyds Banking Group plcUK BNY-13%12%
MBTMobile Telesystems PJSCRussia JPM20%-10%
MDGSMedigus LtdIsrael BNY-85%--
MESOMesoblast Ltd.Australia JPM30%--
MFGMizuho Financial GroupJapan BNY14%3%
MIXTMiX Telematics LimitedS. Africa BNY56%--
MLCOMelco Resorts & Entertainment LtdHong Kong DB----
MOMOMomo Inc.China DB131%--
MTArcelorMittalLuxembourg Citi48%-14%
MTFBMotif Bio PlcUK BNY----
MTLMechel PAORussia DB158%-21%
MTLSMaterialiseBelgium BNY43%--
MTPMidatech Pharma plcUK DB-42%--
MTUMitsubishi UFJ Financial Group, Inc.Japan BNY24%6%
MZORMazor RoboticsIsrael BNY177%--
NBRVNabriva Therapeutics AGAustria BNY20%--
NCTYThe9 LimitedChina BNY-55%-30%
NGGNational Grid plcUK BNY-8%4%
NICENice Systems Ltd.Israel JPM5%13%
NMRNomura Holdings Inc.Japan BNY29%8%
NNDMNano Dimension Ltd.Israel BNY-14%--
NOAHNoah Holdings LimitedChina Citi4%30%
NOKNokia CorporationFinland Citi-8%8%
NQNQ Mobile Inc.China DB-27%-20%
NTESNetease.com, IncChina BNY109%36%
NTLNortel Inversora S.A.Argentina JPM16%11%
NTZNatuzzi S.p.A.Italy BNY101%3%
NVGNNovogen LimitedAustralia BNY-58%-16%
NVONovo Nordisk A/SDenmark JPM-34%4%
NVSNovartis AGSwitzerland JPM0%7%
OASMOasmia Pharmaceutical ABSweden BNY-54%--
OIIMO2Micro International LimitedChina BNY72%-14%
OMABGrupo Aeroportuario del Centro Norte, S.A.B. de C.V. (OMA)Mexico JPM-3%23%
ORANOrange SAFrance JPM-4%3%
OSNOssen Innovation Co. Ltd.China JPM-37%-8%
PACGrupo Aeroportuario del Pacifico, S.A.B. de C.V.Mexico BNY12%21%
PAMPampa Energia S.A.Argentina JPM177%54%
PBMDPrima BioMed LimitedAustralia BNY-32%-36%
PBRPetroleo Brasileiro S.A. - PetrobrasBrazil BNY34%-17%
PHGKoninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Netherlands Citi28%11%
PHIPLDT Inc.Philippines JPM-11%-10%
PKXPOSCOKorea Citi20%-7%
PRANPrana Biotechnology LimitedAustralia BNY-26%-21%
PSOPearson PlcUK BNY-31%-15%
PTNRPartner Communications Company Ltd.Israel Citi0%-7%
PTRPetrochina Co. Ltd.China BNY-2%-14%
PUKPrudential plcUK JPM6%12%
PZEPetrobras Argentina S.A.Argentina JPM80%1%
QIWIQIWIRussia BNY19%--
RBSRoyal Bank of ScotlandUK BNY-10%-3%
RDHLRedHill BiopharmaIsrael BNY-22%--
RDYDr. Reddy's Laboratories LimitedIndia JPM-12%4%
RELXRELX PLCUK Citi12%--
RENNRenren Inc.China Citi-53%-25%
RENXRELX NVNetherlands Citi13%--
RIORio Tinto plcUK JPM25%-7%
RYAAYRyanair Holdings plcIreland BNY13%22%
SANBanco Santander, S.A.Spain BNY35%1%
SAPSAP SEGermany DB28%9%
SBGLSibanye Gold LtdS. Africa BNY-42%--
SBSSABESP: Companhia Saneamento Basico de Sao PaoloBrazil BNY31%-6%
SFUNFang Holdings Ltd.China JPM-40%-2%
SHGShinhan Financial Group Co., Ltd.Korea Citi16%4%
SHISinopec Shanghai Petrochemical Company LimitedChina BNY18%20%
SHPGShire plcUK Citi-4%12%
SIDCompanhia Siderurgica Nacional - CSNBrazil JPM-30%-23%
SIFYSify Technologies LimitedIndia Citi-31%-22%
SIMOSilicon Motion Technology Corp.Taiwan BNY14%17%
SKMSK Telecom Co., Ltd.Korea Citi27%13%
SKYSSky Solar Holdings, Ltd.China Citi-43%--
SMFGSumitomo Mitsui Financial GroupJapan Citi11%3%
SMISemiconductor Manufacturing International Corporation (SMIC)China JPM39%19%
SMMTSummit Therapeutics plcUK BNY49%--
SNDESundance Energy Australia Ltd.Australia BNY----
SNESony CorporationJapan Citi31%15%
SNNSmith & Nephew plcUK DB-3%11%
SNPChina Petroleum & Chemical Corporation (SINOPEC)China Citi20%1%
SNYSanofiFrance JPM5%4%
SOLReneSola Ltd.China BNY-66%-23%
SPISPI Energy Co. Ltd.China BNY-89%--
SPILSiliconware Precision Industries Co., Ltd.Taiwan JPM7%7%
SQMSociedad Quimica y Minera de Chile S.A.Chile BNY74%-9%
SQNSSequans Communications SAFrance BNY40%9%
SSLSasol LtdS. Africa BNY-2%-8%
STMSTMicroelectronics N.V.Netherlands JPM183%22%
STOStatoil ASANorway DB1%-9%
STVChina Digital TV Holding Co.China DB0%-15%
SUPVGrupo Supervielle S.A.Argentina BNY----
SYTSyngenta AGSwitzerland BNY12%6%
TEDUTarena International, Inc.China Citi67%--
TEFTelefonica S.A.Spain Citi5%-5%
TEOTelecom Argentina S.A.Argentina JPM23%9%
TEVATeva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.Israel JPM-45%-8%
TGSTransportadora de Gas del Sur, S.A. (TGS)Argentina BNY134%45%
TITelecom Italia S.p.A.Italy JPM-6%-4%
TIGTiGenix NVBelgium DB----
TKCTurkcell Iletisim Hizmetleri A.S.Turkey Citi-16%-7%
TLKPT Telekomunikasi Indonesia TbkIndonesia BNY17%13%
TLNDTalend SAFrance JPM----
TMToyota Motor CorporationJapan BNY1%6%
TOTTotal S.A.France JPM6%2%
TOURTuniu CorpChina JPM-29%--
TRIBTrinity Biotech plcIreland BNY-48%-13%
TRPXTherapix BiosciencesIsrael BNY----
TRVGTrivago NVNetherlands DB----
TSTenaris S.A.Luxembourg DB24%-3%
TSMTaiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Ltd.Taiwan Citi32%16%
TSUTIM Participacoes S.A.Brazil JPM54%-11%
TTMTata Motors Ltd.India Citi13%3%
TVGrupo Televisa, S.A.B.Mexico BNY-3%5%
TXTernium S.A.Argentina BNY38%1%
UGPUltrapar Participacoes S.A.Brazil BNY11%0%
ULUnilever plcUK DB11%8%
UMCUnited Microelectronics Corp. (UMC)Taiwan JPM-4%-6%
UNUnilever NVNetherlands DB16%8%
VALEVale S.A.Brazil Citi76%-17%
VCOVina Concha y Toro S.A.Chile BNY-3%-4%
VDTHVideocon d2h LtdIndia DB38%--
VEDLVedanta LimitedIndia Citi142%13%
VEONVeonNetherlands BNY----
VIPSVipshop Holdings Ltd.China DB7%93%
VISNVisionChina MediaChina BNY----
VIVTelefonica Brasil SABrazil Citi29%-12%
VJETvoxeljet AGGermany Citi-47%--
VLRSControladora Vuela Compania de Aviacion S.A.B. de C.V.Mexico BNY-39%--
VNET21 Vianet Group, Inc.China Citi-73%-14%
VODVodafone Group plcUK DB-21%-1%
VRNAVerona Pharma plcUK Citi----
WBWeibo CorporationChina JPM124%--
WBAI500.comChina DB-28%--
WBKWestpac Banking CorporationAustralia BNY9%2%
WFWoori BankKorea Citi45%5%
WITWipro LimitedIndia JPM-21%0%
WNSWNS HoldingsIndia DB-4%22%
WPPGYWPP plcUK Citi-5%10%
WUBA58.com Inc.China Citi-29%--
XINXinyuan Real Estate Co., Ltd.China JPM-6%7%
XNETXunlei LimitedChina BNY-48%--
XNYChina Xiniya Fashion LtdChina DB20%-25%
XRFChina Rapid Finance LimitedChina Citi----
XRSTAL Education GroupChina JPM----
XTLBXTL Biopharmaceuticals Ltd.Israel BNY-48%-2%
YGEYingli Green Energy Holding Co. Ltd.China JPM-47%-41%
YINYintech Investment Holdings Ltd.China BNY20%--
YPFYPF Sociedad AnonimaArgentina BNY32%13%
YRDYirendai Ltd.China DB98%--
YYYY Inc.China DB-26%--
YZCYanzhou Coal Mining Company LimitedChina BNY----
ZNHChina Southern Airlines Co., Ltd.China BNY8%9%
ZPINZhaopin LimitedChina JPM13%--
ZTOZTO Express (Cayman) Inc.China JPM----
ZXChina Zenix Auto InternationalChina BNY53%-16%

ADR issuers

  • BNY - BNY Mellon
  • Citi   - Citigroup
  • DB    - Deutsche Bank
  • JPM - JP Morgan

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